The Mundane and the Miraculous

     After writing my last post regarding revival and God’s work, I had a discussion with my good Patrick.  Patrick brought up a really profound point that I would like to share.  First, that if we can’t see God in the mundane, then we will struggle to see him in the miraculous.  Secondly, the desire we have to see miracles may be the exact reason why we are not seeing them.

     Noah Webster defines the mundane as “belonging to the world.”  It is derived from the Latin word “mundus” which means “world, universe.”  In the Latin Vulgate, this word is seen in some interesting places.  In John 1:10 we read, “He was in the world.”  Mundus or the mundane is the word deployed by St. Jerome here.  What is implied from the reading is that God is in the mundane.

    All things around us’ plants, animals, the cycles of seasons, the moon and the stars, and any other aspect of creation, God is “in them.”  When we begin to find intimacy with God in the things that are common we will position ourselves to view that which is uncommon.  Relationship with God in the mundane provides opportunities to see the miraculous.

     The children of Israel wandered in the desert a long time.  They were miraculously fed by God’s manna everyday.  The miraculous became mundane for them.  When they failed to appreciate the mundane, it altered their perception of reality.  We read, “And the people spoke against God and against Moses, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness?  For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this worthless food.” (Numbers 21:5) What they described as “worthless food” was the miraculous bread from heaven, the manna.  The children of Israel are really crying out for a miracle.  They desire to see some great work that will fulfill all the desires of their flesh.  Their desire for tasty food and beverage.  Their reality had become distorted.  They failed to see the miraculous that happened before their eyes.  Their desire for a new miracle prevented them from seeing the miracle that took place every morning.  They had lost their appreciation for the mundane.  Let us not make the same mistake.

Revive Me, Oh Lord!!

     The writer of Psalm 119 was no spiritual novice.  He was very acquainted with his God.  He was acquainted with spirituality, worship, and the study of the law.  He had “tasted and seen” that the Lord, He is good.  And yet, he prayed for personal revival.

     He writes, “Revive me, according to Your Word.” (Psalm 119:25); “Revive me in Your Way.” (119:37); “Revive me in Your Loving-kindness.” (119:88); “Revive me in Your Righteousness.” ((119:40); “Revive me, Oh Lord, according to your Word.”; “Revive me, according to Your Justice.” (119:144); “Revive me, according to Your Word.” (119:151); “Revive me, according to Your Judgments (119:156) and finally, “Revive me, according to your Loving-kindness.” (119:159). Eight times during this Psalm, he prays for personal revival according to the things of God that he has previously experienced.  And yet, he ends the Psalm with his current spiritual condition, “I have gone astray like a lost sheep!  Seek your servant.” (119:176) He is well aware that he has had a falling away from God.  He is acutely aware that he is powerless over his current condition and he seeks God for personal revival.

The Hebrew word used repeatedly in this Psalm is the word hyj pronounced “chaya.”  It basic meaning is “Life is the ability to exercise all one’s vital power to the fullest; death is the opposite.  The verb “haya”  ‘to live’ involves the ability to have life somewhere on the scale between the fullest enjoyment of all the powers of one’s being, with health and prosperity on the one hand and descent into trouble, sickness, and death on the other.” (1)  The Psalmist recognizes that life apart from God is death and that intimate communion with God according to the kingdom principles of promise, justice, loving-kindness, and righteousness is what it means “to live.”  This knowledge can only come by experience.  True personal revival presupposes a falling away.

Charles Finney once wrote, “A revival of true Christianity presupposes a falling away.  Almost all true Christianity in the world has been produced by revivals, because God has found it necessary to use humanity’s excitability to produce powerful awakenings among them before He can lead them to obey.  People are spiritually sluggish.  So many things lead their minds away from God and oppose the influence of the Gospel that God must arouse excitement in them until the wave rises so high that it sweeps away all obstacles.  Before they will obey God, people must be thoroughly awakened.  Only then will they overcome counteracting forces.  No that excited feeling is spirituality.  It is not.  But it is excited worldly desires, appetites, and feelings that prevent true Christianity.” (2)  Any relationship that involves humans will have revivals and falling aways.  It is somewhat to be expected based upon the human condition.  The enemy would have us believe that since we have fallen away, God has subsequently rejected us.  Nothing could be further from the truth.  The fact of the matter is that this particular falling away has positioned us for perhaps the greatest personal revival of all time.  If only we can refrain from judging ourselves, we may be 5 minutes from a great personal awakening.  Perhaps this is the norm of Christianity and should be expected for real spiritual growth.

Endnotes

  1.  Harris, R. Laird; Archer, Gleason L.; Waltke, Bruce; “The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament” Moody Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1980, page 280.
  2. Finney, Charles G., Lectures on Revival,  Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, Minn., 1988, page.

“Oh Lord, Revive Your Works” (Habakkuk 3:2)

     The prophet Habakkuk makes this statement after an intense dialectical discussion with God.  Habakkuk cries out to God concerning the violence for the sake of hatred and greed {the definition of the Hebrew word hamas (smj) which he uses in verse 1:2} that is being perpetrated by his own countryman.  He cries out to God for justice.  God responds by telling the prophet that He will send the armies of Babylon to crush the unrepentant nation of Israel.  Immediately following, Habakkuk makes the above-quoted verse.  It is so insightful and relevant to our time that it warrants examination.

     To begin with, Habakkuk recognizes that something is lacking in the present state of Israel and equally lacking in God’s solution of total destruction. It is revival! The heart of Habakkuk cries out to God for revival!  The prophet recognizes that this is the only real hope in the reality between the present lawless state of Israel and the divinely proposed destruction of it.  It is the only solution that offers salvation.  Consequently, he prays for revival of “Your Works.”

The Hebrew word here is “paal” (lep).  The basic meaning of the word is “to do.”  In our present verse it means “Your doings”, “the things that you do” or “Your works.”  It means “God’s acts in history.” (1)  God’s works with the nation of Israel is wrought with the miraculous.  However, no one in scripture exemplifies the “works of God” more than Jesus.  Jesus tells us, “But I have a greater witness than John; for the works which the Father has given Me to finish—the very works that I do—bear witness of me, that the Father has sent Me.” (John 5:36)  What were the works of Jesus?  He tells the disciples of John that, “the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them.” (Matt11:5) These are the works of God.  The miraculous will always follow the preaching of the kingdom of God.  When Jesus sends out His disciples to preach, He tells them “And as you go, preach, saying, the kingdom of heaven is at hand,  heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out demons’ (Matt 10:7-8)  these are the works that change nations,  In the ancient world, no city was as lost as Tyre.  The Bible tells us that satan was its spiritual leader (Ezek 28:11) and it ruler was blindlessly self-exalting (Ezek 28:1) And yet, Jesus says, “Woe to you Chrazon!  Woe to you Bethsaida!  For if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.” (Matt 11:21) The works of God in history involve the miraculous and this is what the prophet recognizes as the only viable option between the present condition in Israel and the divinely appointed destruction of the nation.

For far too long have the Disciples of Christ not walked in the miraculous.  We have a mandate from Christ to preach the nearness of the kingdom and to validate it by the miraculous.  This is what Jesus did.  It is what the apostles of old did and it is what the church should be doing.  Jesus tells the Jews, “If I do not do the works of the Father, do not believe ME; but if I do, though you do not believe the Me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in Me and I, in Him.” Jesus also tells his disciples, “Believe Me, that I am in the Father and the Father in Me, or else, believe Me for the sake of the works themselves.  Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do he will do also; and greater works than these will he do.”  (John 14:11-12)  Jesus always pointed to the miraculous for two reasons.  First, His miracles were a public display of the works of God.  Secondly,  they were a testimony of His relationship with the Father.  Likewise, Christians ought to be able to walk as Jesus did and should be able to make the same statements to a dying and unbelieving world.  We have the same relationship with the Father as Jesus did.  He tells us, “I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.” (John 14: 20) This means that the public demonstration of this relationship is the miraculous works of God done through us.  That is what lights fires in the hearts of men to seek after God.  This is what fires revival.  This is what the prophet prays for.  This is what prophetic people of our time are crying out for.  Mainly, that the sons and daughters of God would demonstrate to the human world the works of God as proof of their relationship with the Father through the Son.  This is what sparks revival.  Oh Lord, Revive Your Works!

Endnotes

  1. Harris, R. Laird; Archer, Gleason L.; Waltke, Bruce; “The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament” Moody Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1980, page 730.

Revival through Justice and Burning

“When the Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and purged the blood of Jerusalem from her midst by the spirit of judgment and the spirit of burning then the Lord will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night.  For over all the glory there will be a covering.” (Isaiah 4:4-5)

 

     When I read passages like this one, I get pumped for revival.  I can imagine being in the assembly when the cloud and smoke and fire of the presence of God manifest itself.  This is what revival is built upon, the continual abiding presence of God.  Here in this passage, God gives us two distinct spiritual elements that usher in revival.  Let’s examine the two phrases, “spirit of judgment” and spirit of burning” to see if we can develop a fuller understanding of what takes place as a precursor of revival.

     The Hebrew phrases are “reb hOrbO tpvm hOrB” which is correctly translated “the spirit of judgment and the spirit of burning.”  The Hebrew word for spirit, “hOr” is used twice in the passage. (It is used as hOrB and as hOrbO respectively.  The reader will notice the O in the front of the second occurrence, this is the conjunctive vav and means and, but ,and also.  The reader will also notice the b which occurs in front of both occurrences.  This is an inseparable preposition and it attaches to the front of the word.  It’s basic meaning with “b” is with.  The reader will also notice the dot in the middle of the first occurrence.  This is called a dagesh lene and occurs with certain letters called beghadkephat {a pneumonic device for Hebrew letters that will receive the dagesh lene namely tpkdkb.}  These letters will receive the dagesh lene and occasionally will change the pronunciation, though not the meaning of words.  In this case, the first would be pronounced as a “b” sound while the second would be pronounced as a “v” sound.)  The basic idea of spirit is “wind in motion.”  That these two spirits are separate and distinct from the Holy Spirit can be evidenced by the missing title “cdooiioqh” pronounced Ha-kodesh” meaning Spirit of the Holy.  It seems to me that these are two spirits that are sent from God to accomplish His purposes.  God lives in a realm that is spiritual and He is Spirit (John 4:24)  God reigns supreme in ths realm and beings such as spiritual ones complete his purposes.  This is what we are looking at in this passage.  We will come back to this momentarily.

     The Hebrew word for judgment is the word “tpvm” which is pronounced, “mishphat.”  Judgment doesn’t quite effectively convey the essence of this Hebrew word.  An example of what it means may readily explain what it means.  Solomon, when he prays for wisdom, asks God to give him wisdom so that he can “misphat” the children of Israel.  Mishphat means to establish an order.  The establishment of the correct understanding of order or government.  The essence is the establishment of an order where justice is the normal function of the established system.  This word has also been translated as manner or custom meaning that they system that is established yields a social more or law that all are expected to order their lives according too.  This is what Solomon asked God for and this spirit of Mishphat was granted and it brought about huge revival during the reign of Solomon including the aforementioned cloud and smoke of the presence.  The Greek word that is used in the Septuagint carries a very similar meaning but also carries the idea of separation.  This implies that judgment will separate the people of justice from the people of lawlessness.  To the verse in question, this tells us that order and justice is an actual spiritual force that is released by God to counteract the prevailing spirit of lawlessness that operates where wanton sin abounds.

     The Hebrew word for “burning” is the word, “reb” which is pronounced “va-er.”  The basic idea here is to seek out, to glean, or to collect in order to destroy by fire.  Basically, mishphat separates and identifies evil and sin and vaer completely destroys and consumes it.  The Greek of the Septuagint carries a similar idea “to suffer from feverish burning” as in the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah when God rained down fire from heaven which yielded complete destruction of evil and sin.  To the passage in question, God releases an actual spiritual force that yields the complete consumption of the effects of sin and evil.  This spiritual force, like a raging consuming fire, completely destroys whatever it is targeted against, in this case, the evil that is identified through mishphat.  Once this takes place, only that which is good; pure; and holy remains.  Then, the presence of God will swell with us as a cloud by dire and a fire by night.  This is the essence of revival.  No compromise with evil and sin.  The Presence will not tolerate moral compromise and injustice.  Evil must be completely eliminated and the establishment of justice; order, and the proper use of government ushers in revival. Perhaps our prayer should be for God to send the spirit of judgment and burning into our lives, our churches, and our nation, in order to usher in real individual, corporate, and national revival and reform.

Unity: The Fuel of Revival

“Behold, how good and pleasant it is when brothers dwell in unity! It is like the precious oil on the head, running down on the beard, on the beard of Aaron, running down on the collar of his robes! It is like the dew of Hermon, which falls on the mountains of Zion! For there the LORD has commanded the blessing, life forevermore.” (Psalm 133)

The power of unity is demonstrated throughout history and scripture. It is a tremendous power that always brings results. During periods of revival, it is one of the top Satanic strategies to destroy. History is replete with movements of God that have been shut down over division and disunity. From the Corinthians who claimed, “I follow Apollos, and I follow Paul” (I Cor 3:4) to the modern day Brownsville revival (1), Hell has always sought to disrupt Christian unity. Unity fuels the advancement of the kingdom.

The Bible describes human unity in very plain language. In fact, the Biblical character giving the description is God, Himself. In Genesis 11, the people are building a tower in order to “establish a name for themselves so they aren’t scattered abroad.” (Genesis 11:4) Their efforts are achieving success. God looks at the scene and makes a very important observation about it. He states, “Behold, the people are one, and anything they set their minds to do will not be withheld from them.” (Genesis 11:6) This is a unity apart from the anointing of the Holy Spirit and yet, anything that we, as united people set out to do, we will accomplish it. It gets things done. When Christians gather together, a spiritual force, as well as the human force, is released as well. This brings revival

On the day of Pentecost, we read that the people were “of one accord”(Acts 1:14, 2:1) Meaning, that they were united in purpose. An anointing so strong that it changed human history was released out of this unity. Jesus describes His unity with God when He states, “I and My Father are One” (John 10:30) Out of His Unity comes the reconciliation of humans to God. Spiritual forces are fueled by our agreement and released through our unity. This gives us insight into why God told Israel to “have nothing to do with the gods of the people that I drive out before you.” They disobey the command, and years later they are exiled from the land because “the worshipped the gods of the people that God had driven out before them.” (I Kings 17:8) Human agreement fuels spiritual power and the unity of those people release whatever spiritual force is present. Psalm 133 (see above) describes the anointing that is poured out of unity. It drenches the priests.

In corporate or individual revivals, every effort must be made to maintain unity. Division is a strategy from hell designed to disrupt revival. When we allow division to shut us down, it disrupts what the Spirit is doing. As the people of God, we should be on the look out for attempts of the enemy to disrupt our unity as a people to drive us into division. Division scatters the troops and decreases the release of anointing.

Jesus’ time was short. He knew He was about to depart the physical realm. He had one last prayer to pray after His Passover meal. The enemy was just a few miles away and they were closing in on Him. His prayer time was going to be interrupted and He knew it. What does he pick as the topic for the bulk of His last prayer on earth. Unity is His topic. Why? So that the world may know that Jesus is Messiah. This is the essence of revival. We will let the words of His final prayer end the discussion on this topic. “I do not ask for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may become perfectly one, so that the world may know that you sent me and loved them even as you loved me. ”(John 17:20-23 ESV)

Endnotes

1. The Brownsville Revival went into a steep decline when a division took place in the church led by a “prophetess” of the revival.

Revival is a Mess

“Where there are no oxen, the manger is clean, but abundant crops come by the strength of the ox.” (Pro 14:4 ESV)

     Revival is messy business. So many issues are bound to arise out of a movement of God. There is no coincidence that John Wesley prayed, “Lord, send revival without all the defects, but if this is not possible, send revival anyway. We must have revival.” (1) Wesley, knew all to well, that revival brings out issues. I think there is an obvious spiritual reason for it.

     The last thing that the devil and the demonic hordes of hell want is for revival to take place. Why? Because a true revival develops multitudes of people that remain faithful to God because of their experiences in revival. Revival raises up ministers for the Kingdom of God that have a lasting impact on the world. We could quote numerous sources from Azusa Street and the Toronto revival where this point is amply illustrated. (2) Nevertheless, revival changes people. It changes the most notorious sinners into saints, and it changes saints into anointed and powerful men and woman of God. Obviously, this is something that hell would like to avoid. Hence, it does all that it can to prevent it from occurring. Some of us may be experiencing this now, in this present time. We must, however, press on. Revival is going to come, so we must press on in prayer. ( Please see my post from last year about praying for revival. Many great revivals have been birthed in prayer, Red River, Azusa Street, and the Welsh revival.)

     Even after revival begins, hell does all that it can to destroy and stop it. Again, the historical references here are too numerous to list. We can begin with Clara Lum stealing William Seymour mailing list after his marriage. Prior to that, Evan Roberts was deceived by the Lewis-Penn couple and locked away for years ending the Welsh revival. The recent Brownsville, Florida revival was ended over division that originated from a so-called prophetess. Lastly, the events of the Lakeland revival with Todd Bentley are all obvious examples that the forces of hell move violently to stop revival. Therefore, we must be prepared.

     We must remain transparent with one another and maintain lines of communication. We must remain connected to each other in covenant relationships. We must have humility to allow God to control everything that is happening. We can not allow doctornal issues to separate unity of the Body. What matters most during revival is that people are experiencing the Presence of God in such profound ways that it changes who they are as individuals. Nothing should ever be done to hinder this work of the Holy Spirit. This is what matters most. We must be flexible to allow God to change our own religious paradigms. Revival happens when God works outside of the box of how we feel He should operate. We must be open to God doing things that make us somewhat uncomfortable without attempting to control or change what is happening. The Holy Spirit must have complete control to change any order of any service regardless of who the speaker or worship leader might be. We must never allow pride to justify harboring an area of sin.

     Humility, above all else, is key to revival. My dear friend, Brian Vandiver, had a wonderful experience where humility became a living entity to him. I believe this is huge. This is what is necessary for the continuing of revival. Humility and a spirit of repentance. Frank Bartelemann Of Azusa street once wrote that, “the depth of revival will be determined exactly by the depth of the sprit of repentance.”(3) We must be willing to be convicted about stuff and be able to confess that to each other without a fear of judgment or condemnation. Neither of which exist in the Kingdom of Christ. When the power of God shows up, it will change the saints. We must allow the presence of God to convict us and bring us to repentance about whatever issues might exist. Randy Clark, one of the leaders of the Toronto revival wrote, “Revival is not just abut power. It is not even primarily about power. More importantly, it is about love and humility. Are we willing to allow the Holy Spirit to do whatever it takes to break us of our pride, our need to control, out of self-seeing motives in ministry? Are we desperate enough for Him to let Him completely have His way in us.”(4) Revival has a transforming effect on people and transformation can get real ugly. Can we please remember that each of are human beings and are fallible. Let us operate out of a spirit of love, mercy, and grace.

      It is important to remember that persecution will follow revival. Again, there are too many historical examples to site. The Los Angeles Times blasted the Azusa Street revival. Fox news blasted the Lakeland Revival. In old days, drunken mockers would come to disrupt services. During revival, hell ramps up its efforts to instill in us the “fear of man” so as, to shut down the revival. We must not allow this to happen. It can be combated by being transparent about our fears and discussing them with one another and with God. Through our relationships with each other and with God, we can overcome them.

     There will also be different manifestations of the Spirit. We must be willing to accept this while praying for discernment to see where demonic spirits may be attempting to operate during a meeting. However, we must allow an environment that permit’s the unique expression of a person individuality and their relationship with God without prejudice. Frank Bartlemann writes, “But we can be cautious without being critical. We can be discerning without being destructive. Oh, let us have an open mind lest we be among those who cling to tradition and miss God.” (5)

     We must also take care of each other and watch for potential burnout. When revival fires are burning, people don’t get much sleep, and they tend to eat poorly. I remember Todd Bentley’s doctor telling him that he had the body of a sixty year old man, when Todd finished revival. We must watch each other and take care of each other. Roberts Liardon has some good advice in this arena, He writes, “Mature revivalist much learn to care for their physical bodies. You can live out of your spirit, operate in the anointing, and get the rest you need. If you don’t disaster is pending…A revivalist must know how to lead and rest in order to remain a vital instrument of God.” (6)

 Endnotes

1. Clark, Randy, There is More! Reclaiming the Power of Impartation, Global Awakening, Mechanicsburg, PA, 2006, page 123.

2.  Here the reader is referred to the above mentioned book by Randy Clark. Suffice it to say here that Heidi and Rolland Baker powerful movement in Mozambique has roots in the Toronto Revival. Secondly, the reader is referred to a book which is a collection of William Seymour’s newsletter that came from the Azusa Street revival: Hyatt, Eddie, (editor) Fire on the Earth, Creation House Publishing, 2006.

3. Bartlemann, Frank; Azusa Street; Whittaker House, New Kinsington, PA, 1982, page 19.

4. Clark, page 186.

5. Bartlemann, page 173.

6. Liardon, Roberts, God’s Generals, Whitaker House Publishing, New Kensington, PA, 1996, page 88-,89.

Fasting and the Kingdom Sacrifice

“I will not sacrifice anything to the Lord that cost me nothing.”  1 Sam 24:24

The Biblical sacrificial system demands that only the best animals are to be sacrificed.  It was designed to cost the worshipper, set up to put the worshipper in a position of dependency upon God.  When one considers a fast, it should be done prayerfully and it should cost the worshipper.  Sacrifice demands faith and faith is the currency that releases the Kingdom.

“The Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee.”  (Luke 4:14)

If sin is the willful taking of that which is unlawful; then fasting is the willful sacrifice of that which is lawful.  Jesus learned obedience by willfully sacrificing that which was lawful when He was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, the beginning of His 40 day fast.  The Bible says that Jesus was filled with the Spirit when He went into the wilderness, but something happened upon His return.  “He returned in the power of the Spirit” (Luke 4:14).  The willful sacrifice of fasting, led to an increase in “power.”   Jesus illustrates this point with the disciples.

“Assuredly I say to you, if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, “move from here, to there” and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you.  However, this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting.’” (Matthew 17:19-21)

The willful sacrifice of fasting (obedience and sacrifice), leads to a faith that can move mountains.  “Faith needs fasting for it’s full growth … In nothing is man more closely connected with the world of sense than in his need for, and enjoyment of, food.  It was the fruit with which man was tempted and fell in Paradise.  It was with bread that Jesus was tempted in the wilderness.  But He triumphed in fasting … The first thought suggested by Jesus’ words in regard to fasting and prayer is that only in a life of moderation and self-denial will there be sufficient heart and strength to pray much … Without such voluntary separation, even from what is lawful, no one will attain power in prayer.  Such power comes only through fasting and prayer” (1).

“Blessed are those who hunger … for they shall be filled” (Mat 5:6).

There is a certain humility that comes with hunger.  It’s a good thing to know what it means to be hungry.  “Hunger is a mighty good thing.  It’s the greatest persuader I know if.  It’s a marvelous mover.  I wish we all had it spiritually.  I wish to God we were desperately hungry.  Wouldn’t it be glorious?  Somebody would get filled before this meeting was over” (2).  The hungry get fed.  The exercise of fasting is birthed from a spiritual hunger for more of God and His world.  It is a sacrifice of lawful things, a physical hunger.  This hunger impacts the soul with desperation for feeding.  Heidi Baker, a missionary in Africa, speaks of the power of the desperation of hunger:  “The people there are so hungry that when it comes time to eat, they literally stomp on each other.  They are so desperate that they push and shove each other out of the way in order to get to the food first.  It does not sound nice, I know, but the ones who scream the loudest and push the hardest get fed first.  The ones who press in always get the bread.  I have witnessed this happen time and again, so I asked God, ‘what is this, God?’  He said: ‘the ones who are hungry get fed.  The ones who are thirsty get to drink.  It is as simple as that’” (3).  When we get desperate for an increase of God, and that desperation leads to sacrifice and we will not be disappointed in God’s response.  We will be filled.

1.)  Murray, Andrew, With Christ in the School of Prayer; Whitaker House, New Kensington, PA; 1981; pp 100-103
2.) Liardon, Roberts, John G. Lake, The Complete Collection of His Life Teachings; Albury Publishing; Tulsa, OK; 1999; p 452
3.)  Baker, Roland and Heidi, Expecting Miracles; Chosen Books; Grand Rapids, MI; 2007; p 48

Open Heavens: Spiritual Portals and Places

Open Heavens:  Spiritual Portals and Places

“Oh that You would rend the heavens!  That You would come down!  That the mountains might shake at Your Presence.”  (Isaiah 64:1)

There is a difference, geographically speaking, between the physical realm and the spiritual realm.  The spiritual realm is the invisible realm around us and the physical realm is the realm that we live in, that is experienced with our five senses.  On the second day of creation, it would seem that God established some boundaries that separated the higher lives of heaven from lower spiritual levels that exist here on earth.  We read, “Then God said, ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the water from the waters.’  Thus God made the firmament and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.  And God called the firmament Heaven…(Genesis 1:6-8).   The word that is translated “waters” is the Hebrew word, “mayim.”  The word literally means “to flow” and is difficult to translate.  It is translated “waters” as water comes the closest to the exact meaning of “to flow.”  Oftentimes, water, in scripture, denotes the spiritual realm. (Ezekiel 47, John 8:38) .  If this be the case here, then God is making boundaries within the spiritual realm.  A firmament is placed to separate the lower spiritual levels (in which live devils, demons, and in which angels operate here on earth) from the higher spiritual levels which contain the abode of God.  This is evident by God calling the firmament, “heaven.”  This Hebrew word for heaven, is the word “shamayim” which is a combination word of “sha” meaning “lofty” and “mayim” meaning “to flow.”  In essence, a higher spiritual place.  It divided the lower levels from the higher spiritual realms.  This may be Paul’s reference to the “third heaven” that was experienced in vision. (2 Corinthians 12:12)  So, when God “rends the heavens” (Isaiah 64:1) a hole is ripped in the dividing partition and an open heaven is created over a certain geographic location.  Therefore, what is free to roam in higher levels of heaven has freer access to the lower spiritual realms here on earth.  In fact, there are times when heaven comes crashing into the physical realm.  Perhaps, this is the essence of revival.

There are three biblical locations that illustrate this point.   Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpah.  A survey of when the open heaven occurred and the spiritual legacy of each location should provide sufficient evidence.

First, Bethel. (the meaning itself suggest an open heaven, it literally means house of God)  We find Jacob “on the run” from his brother Esau shortly after stealing Esau’s blessing and birthright.  Jacob is a deceiver and is reaping what he has sown.  Prior to his departure, his father Isaac releases some prophetic blessings over Jacob and sends him on his way.  Isaac states, “May God Almighty bless you, and make you fruitful and multiply you, that you may be an assembly of peoples; and give you the blessings of Abraham, to you and your descendants with you, that you may inherit the land in which you are a stranger, which God gave to Abraham.” (Genesis 28:3-4)  Isaac’s prophetic blessings caused a shifting in the spiritual realm.  The covenant blessings of Abraham have just been unleashed over this boys life, and God shifts His Spiritual Kingdom into motion.  Because of the nature of the covenant and the nature of the blessings, God must act.  Jacob now has the right to be a potential covenantal partner with God.  God moves to meet Jacob.  In Genesis 28:11, the meeting takes place.  “So, he came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun and set.  And he took one of the stones of that place and put it at his head, and he lay down in that place to sleep.”  The Hebrew word for “the place” can also mean “to make intercession.”  This is no ordinary place Jacob has come upon.  “The place” is the physical location where the prophetic blessings, declarations, and prayers that have moved the heavenly realms into action, come crashing into the physical realm.  The firmament is “rendered” and an open heaven exist.  A portal or door between the higher levels of heaven and the lower levels here on earth has been opened.  Jacob then has an encounter with God that changes his life forever.  The spiritual door is opened and that door impacts Jacob’s life so that he would never be the same.  Years later, Bethel would remain spiritual center for Israel.  Access to the spiritual realm is readily available at the spiritual door at Bethel.  Later, under Jeroboam, it becomes an idolatrous center, but it remained a place of spiritual activity.

Second, Mizpah.  Jacob is now leaving Haran, again on the run, only not his fault this time, and comes to a place.  Laban, his disgruntled father-in-law, is in hot pursuit of him for stealing his gods, and catches up to him in the mountains.  Jacob and Laban work out the differences largely because God opened a door at Mizpah and moved to meet Laban so as he would not harm Jacob.  God tells Laban to “speak neither good or bad to Jacob.”(Gen 31:29).  Again, the spiritual door is opened and what is free to operate in the higher levels of heaven, now has easier access here on earth.  The next day, Jacob verifies the opening of this spiritual door as ,”the angels of God” were following him. (Genesis 32:2)  Likewise, Mizpah enjoyed a long spiritual heritage in Israel (more on this in a moment).

Third, Gilgal.  The faithless generation of Israel has died in the wilderness and God is moving His People of faith into the Promised Land.  Joshua leads Israel across the Jordan and comes to a place which would later become called Gilgal.  God instructs Joshua to circumcise the children of Israel.  As they move in faith and obedience, the forces of heaven again prepare to assault the earth.  Joshua meets the “commander of the army of the Lord of Hosts.”  This preincarnate appearance of Messiah opened a spiritual door  and Gilgal remained a spiritual center for years.  (Judges 2:1)  Of course, a door is also opened shortly thereafter at Jericho and we will also see how it remained a spiritual focal point.

Years later, there remained something special about these three places.  Something existed there that prophetic people could sense, especially Samuel.  The Bible says that, “And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life.  He went from year to year on a circuit to Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpah, and judged Israel in all those places. (I Samuel 7:15-16)  When the seer/prophet became the judge of Israel, he judged from the places where spiritual portals had been opened.  Throughout his ministry he assembled Israel at these places.  (I Samuel 13:4, I Samuel 76:5-7)  Could it be that the prophet knew where access to the higher realms of Spirit were easily accessed and he purposed to go there to obtain the wisdom and knowledge that he needed to rule Israel?  There is no clear cut verse of scripture that states it.  However, it seems likely.  Especially since the ark of the covenant (over which the presence of God was to remain) was in Kirath-Jearim and there is no record of Samuel ever visiting it.  Perhaps he was receiving revelatory knowledge through the open heavens that already existed.

It is also a point of interest that Elijah, when passing the mantle to Elisha, visits both Bethel and Gilgal.  It is of further interest that at Bethel there existed a “school of the sons of the prophets” or a community of prophets who chose to live there.   Perhaps it became a prophetic center as the open heaven made practicing the prophetic much easier.  Elijah also visits Jericho, and likewise, a center for the prophets existed there as well.  Could it also be that prophetic activation was readily available from the doors opened at both Gilgal and Jericho?  It seems more than mere coincidence.

There is also a New Testament example.  When Jesus is baptized by John in the Jordan an open heaven is established.  Matthew describes the event as, “When He had been baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting upon Him.” (Matthew 3:16)  When the heavens open, what is free to operate in higher levels of heaven moves readily into earth.  We see God Himself, in the person of the Holy Spirit, coming to Jesus, and this time, the presence stays with Jesus.  He has an open heaven wherever He goes, as the higher abode of God is now abiding in Him.(it should be this way for us as well)  Be that as it may, Jesus may have operated under that baptismal open heaven while in ministry.  The disciples of John the Baptist stay to John, “And they came to John and said to him, Rabbi, He who was with you beyond the Jordan to whom you have testified–behold He is baptizing, and all are coming to Him!” (John 3:26)  Perhaps Jesus was ministering under the open heaven  that was created at His baptism and revival was breaking out as “all were coming to Him.”  The open heaven experience sparked a revival among the tax collectors and sinners, and Jesus knew how to exploit the breach.

This is relevant to our times.  If these doors or portals exist, then they must be open.  “The implication is that we can visit these geographic locations and participate in an open heaven experience.  These are not just specific to Israel.  Everywhere that a revival or renewal has taken place is a door that has been opened.   The Red-River Revival was birthed out of prayer, fasting, and intercession.  Reverend James MacGready was a man given to prayer and a pastor who encouraged parishioners to pray for revival.  He encouraged them to join him in covenant to pray for revival in Logan County.  He wrote on the covenant:  “When we consider the Word and promises of a compassionate God to the poor lost family of Adam, we find the strongest encouragement for Christians to pray in faith–to ask in the name of Jesus for the conversion of their fellow-men.  None ever went to Christ when on the earth, with the case of their friends, that were denied, and , although His people, He has left it on record, that were two or three agree upon earth to ask in prayer, believing, it shall be done…With these promises before us, we feel encouraged to unit our supplications to a prayer-hearing God for the outpouring of His Spirit, that His people may be quickened and comforted, and that our children , and sinners generally, may be converted.” (1)  Those who joined him in covenant agreed to pray every Saturday night and Sunday morning for revival. Furthermore, they devoted the third Saturday of each month for fasting.  They continued in prayer despite the worsening of conditions, they remained faithful.  God always honors covenant , commitment, and humility expressed through prayer and fasting.  Those who remained faithful would not be disappointed.

God honored the perseverance, the faith, the prayers, and the fasting of His People, and He moved.  The prayers in the  physical realm moved the spiritual realm and God’s Kingdom, once again, began to move.  There was going to be a place where the hevens were rendered and God would invade earth.  He came crashing into Kentucky in June of 1800, and this open heaven experience sparked a nationwide revival.

In June of 1800, another communion service was scheduled.  The event was scheduled for three days with not much happening till the last service on the last day.  In fact, many of the ministers MacGready had invited to participate had already gone home.  At the end of the last service, which was preached by William Hodge, “a solemn weeping fell over the house” (2).  John McGee, a Methodist minister who was attending the meetings, composed himself for a final appeal to the lost.  McGee explains, “I exhorted them to let the Lord Omnipotent reign in their hearts and submit to Him, and their souls should live.  Many broke silence.  The woman in the east end of the house shouted tremendously.  I left the pulpit to go to her…Several spoke to me:  ‘You know these people.  Presbyterians are much for order, they will not bear this confusion, go back and be quiet.’  I turned to go back, and was near falling, the power of God was strong upon me.  I turned again and losing sight of the fear of man, I went through the house exhorting with all possible ecstasy and energy.” (3)  When McGee turned around to look over the church, he states that, “the floor was covered with the slain; their screams for mercy pierced the heavens.” (4)  God had poured out His Spirit and MacGready described the effect on the lost as, “As multitudes were stuck down under the awful conviction the cries of the distressed filled the whole house.  There you might see profane swearers, and Sabbath breakers pricked to the heart, and crying out, ‘what shall we do to be saved.’  There frolickers and dancers crying for mercy.  There you might see little children of 10,11, and 12 years of age praying and crying for redemption, in the blood of Jesus, in agonies of distress.  During this sacrament, and until the Tuesday following, 10 persons we believe were savingly brought home to Christ.” (5)  This was the beginning, a year later, another meeting was scheduled at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and the response was overwhelming.  To put this into perspective, the closest city to Cane Ridge was Lexington and it was 100 miles away.  Its population in 1801 was around 800 people.  At the Cane Ridge revival, it was estimated that 10,000 people came with God pouring out His Spirit similarly to what happened at Red River.  This was the beginning of the camp meetings and the beginning of the Second Great Awakening.

A spiritual door must exist at Red River.  This summer we will travel there and sit under the open heaven that was created by the prayers of the saints and the response of a Loving, All-Powerful God.

Endnotes

1.  Jarboe, Frank, The Red River Revival, http://www.goodshepherdfarm.us/1800/redtext.htm.

2.  Ibid.

3.  Ibid.

4.  Marshall, Peter, Manual, David, From Sea to Shining Sea, Revell Cp, Old Tappan New Jersey, 1986, page 63.

5.  Grider, J.S.  The Red River Meeting House, http://www.cumberland.org/hfcpc/churches/RedRivKY.htm.

Prayer for Revival

While I was disappointed with the cancellation of our Red River Revival trip, I have been impressed by God to continue in prayer and fasting for revival.  A recent study I have done of past revival demonstrates that great moves of God have been birthed through prayer.

The Welsh revival in the early 1900’s was birthed out of prayer and intercession.  Evan Roberts was the individual whom God used to bring about this movement.  “Evan gave himself to frequent prayer and intercession” (1).  His early meetings were characterized by prayer and intercession.  Those meetings are described as follows: “strong moves of intercession flooded the room during each service and many times the services would go past midnight.  Once, Evan prayed all night with a congregation and didn’t return home until the next morning.  This small group of intercessors led by the young evangelist transformed the entire community.  Some meetings lasted until 4am with crowds gathered outside for 6am prayer” (2).

Similarly, the Azusa street revival was birthed out of prayer.  The revival was led by William Seymour, but Frank Bartlemann and others birthed it through prayer and intercession.  He writes: “the Spirit is breathing prayer through us for a mighty, general outpouring.  Great things are coming.  We are asking largely that our joy may be full.  God is moving. We are praying for the churches and the pastors. The Lord will visit those willing to yield to Him” (3).

Lastly, the Red River revival was likewise birthed through prayer and fasting.  Three years before the revival broke out, James MacGready, (the pastor of the Red River congregation), enlisted the help of interceding Christians who would sign a covenant of prayer.  Once they agreed, they covenanted to pray every Saturday evening and Sunday morning for revival in Logan county.  Additionally, they agreed to spend the third Saturday of the month fasting for revival.  Things in Logan County didn’t improve immediately, actually they got worse, but MacGready encouraged them to continue in prayer.  He wrote on the covenantal agreement: “when we consider the Word and the promises of a compassionate God to the poor lost family of Adam, we find the strongest encouragement for Christians to pray in faith — to ask in the name of Jesus for the conversion of their fellow men … with these promises before us, we feel encouraged to unite our supplications to a prayer hearing God, for the outpouring of His Spirit, that His people may be quickened and comforted, and that our children, and sinners generally, may be converted” (4).

Hence, let us continue steadfast in prayer that God will open the spiritual door at Red River.  Let us pray for revival in Kentucky that will shake the nation, and eventually the world, standing on the promise of God which says: “Ask of me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession” (Psalm 2:8).

1.)  Liardon, Roberts; God’s Generals; Whittaker House, New Kinsington, PA; 1996 (pg. 81)
2.) Ibid, pg 85

3.)  Bartlemann, Frank; Azusa Street; Whittaker House, New Kinsington, PA, 1982; (pg 9, 14,15)

4.)  Marshall, Peter; Manuel, David; From Sea to Shining Sea; Revell Company, Old Tappan, NJ, 1986; (p 60-61)

History of the Red River Revival

The Red River Revival began in July of 1800 at a communion service officiated by Reverend James MacGready.  The Red River is located in Logan County, Kentucky, and in the years preceding this revival, conditions were really bad.   “Logan County attracted so many murderers, horse thieves, highway robbers, and counterfeiters that it was nicknamed ‘Rogues Harbor’ by the outlaws who fled there to escape justice back east.” (1) It was on the cutting edge of the frontier in the late 1700’s.  There was no real police force, per se, and locals often attempted to administer justice themselves.  “ So many desperadoes and ungodly people had settled there, that when an attempt was made by vigilantes to run these outlaws out, the outlaws burned the homes of some of the vigilantes, killed others, and forced still others and their families to flee the area. (2)  Reverend MacGready began praying for revival long before he moved to Logan County.  He pastored a congregation in North Carolina and developed intercessory prayer groups who signed the ‘Carolina Covenant’, in which, they agreed to prayer specifically for revival in Logan County (more on this in a moment).

Reverend James MacGready  rode into Rogues Harbor in 1798.  He wore buckskins, like the local frontiersmen, and was a Presbyterian minister.  He oversaw three congregations in the County along three different rivers, the Muddy, the Gasper and the Red.  MacGready was a man given to prayer and a pastor who encouraged parishioners to pray for revival.  He encouraged them to join him in covenant to pray for revival in Logan County.  He wrote on the covenant:  “When we consider the Word and promises of a compassionate God to the poor lost family of Adam, we find the strongest encouragement for Christians to pray in faith–to ask in the name of Jesus for the conversion of their fellow-men.  None ever went to Christ when on the earth, with the case of their friends, that were denied, and , although His people, He has left it on record, that were two or three agree upon earth to ask in prayer, believing, it shall be done…With these promises before us, we feel encouraged to unit our supplications to a prayer-hearing God for the outpouring of His Spirit, that His people may be quickened and comforted, and that our children , and sinners generally, may be converted.” (3)  Those who joined him in covenant agreed to pray every Saturday night and Sunday morning for revival. Furthermore, they devoted the third Saturday of each month for fasting.  They continued in prayer despite the worsening of conditions, they remained faithful.  God always honors covenant , commitment, and humility expressed through prayer and fasting.  Those who remained faithful would not be disappointed.

The first instance of revival began at a quarterly communion service in the summer of 1799.  At the end of the three-day event. God moved upon the congregation,   MacGready described it as, “some of the boldest, most daring sinners in the county covered their faces and wept bitterly.” (4) MacGready knew prophetically that this was not the end of the outpouring but the beginning.   He described the event as “a few scattering drops before a mighty rain-the overflowing floods of salvation that would commence the following summer.” (5)

In June of 1800, another communion service was scheduled.  The “buzz” from last years event had drawn a crowed of over 500 people surprising even MacGready.  The event was scheduled for three days with not much happening till the last service on the last day.  In fact, many of the ministers MacGready had invited to participate had already gone home.  At the end of the last service, which was preached by William Hodge, “a solemn weeping fell over the house” (8).  John McGee, a Methodist minister who was attending the meetings, composed himself for a final appeal to the lost.  McGee explains, “I exhorted them to let the Lord Omnipotent reign in their hearts and submit to Him, and their souls should live.  Many broke silence.  The woman in the east end of the house shouted tremendously.  I left the pulpit to go to her…Several spoke to me:  ‘You know these people.  Presbyterians are much for order, they will not bear this confusion, go back and be quiet.’  I turned to go back, and was near falling, the power of God was strong upon me.  I turned again and losing sight of the fear of man, I went through the house exhorting with all possible ecstasy and energy.” (9)  When McGee turned around to look over the church, he states that, “the floor was covered with the slain; their screams for mercy pierced the heavens.” (10)  God had poured out His Spirit and MacGready described the effect on the lost as, “As multitudes were stuck down under the awful conviction the cries of the distressed filled the whole house.  There you might see profane swearers, and Sabbath breakers pricked to the heart, and crying out, ‘what shall we do to be saved.’  There frolickers and dancers crying for mercy.  There you might see little children of 10,11, and 12 years of age praying and crying for redemption, in the blood of Jesus, in agonies of distress.  During this sacrament, and until the Tuesday following, 10 persons we believe were savingly brought home to Christ.” (11)  This was the beginning, a year later, another meeting was scheduled at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and the response was overwhelming.  To put this into perspective, the closest city to Cane Ridge was Lexington and it was 100 miles away.  Its population in 1801 was around 800 people.  At the Cane Ridge revival, it was estimated that 10,000 people came with God pouring out His Spirit similarly to what happened at Red River.  This was the beginning of the camp meetings and the beginning of the Second Great Awakening.

It is important to note that the frontiers people were not schooled in theology.  They placed great value in demonstrations of power.  God would meet them where they were at and they would not be disappointed.  Some powerful manifestations of the revival have been recorded.  A Reverend Stone writes, “ There, on the edge of a prairie in Logan County, Kentucky, the multitudes came together and continued a number of days and nights encamped on the ground, during which time the worship was carried on in some part of the encampment.  The scene was new to me and passing strange.  It baffled description.  Many, very many, fell down as men slain in battle, and continued for hours together in an apparently breathless and motionless state, sometimes for a few minutes reviving and exhibiting symptoms of life by a deep grown or a piercing shriek, or by a prayer for mercy fervently uttered.  After lying there for hours, they obtained deliverance.  The gloomy cloud that had covered their faces seemed gradually and visibly to disappear, and hope in smiles brightened into joy.  They would rise, shouting deliverance and then would address the surrounding multitude in language truly eloquent and impressive.  With astonishment did I hear men, woman, and children declaring the wonderful works of God, and the glorious mysteries of the Gospel. (12)  The power of God would come over people so tremendously that it would appear that they were having some seizure-like activity.  It became known as “the jerks.”  Peter Cartwright, the well-known Methodist circuit rider, and himself converted at Red River writes, “To see proud young gentlemen and young ladies dressed in their silks, jewelry, and prunella, form top to toe take the jerks would often excite e my risibilities.  The first jerk or so you would see their fine bonnets, caps, and combs fly and so sudden would be the jerking of the head their long loose hair would crack almost as loud as a waggoner’s whip.” (13)  It baffled the theology of the time.  They called it experimental religion, but today, we would call it experiential religion.  An encounter with the living God who displays the gospel of power.

The revival was not without opposition.  MacGready was never immune to persecution throughout his ministry and even at Red River.  In North Carolina he had his pulpit burned and received death threats written in blood.  AT one point, the opposition at Red River, chained and locked the door to the revivalist.  MacGready, not to be deterred, continued top preach on the steps of the meeting house.  While preaching and gesticulating backwards violently, the power of God upon him broke the lock.  The door was never locked again.  MacGready own denomination denounced him and sent a man from the seminary to debunk and renounce the revival.  Dr, George Baxter of the Presbyterian denomination came to Kentucky to discredit the revival and became, himself, a revivalist.  He writes, “The power with which this revival has spread, and it influence in moralizing the people, are difficult for you to conceive, and more so for me to describe…I found Kentucky,  to appearance, the most moral place I had ever seen.  A profane expression was hardly ever heard.  A religious awe seemed to pervade the country…Never in my life have I seen more genuine marks of that humility which…looks to the Lord Jesus Christ, as the only way of acceptance with God.  I was indeed highly pleased to find that Christ as all and in all in their religion…and it was truly affecting to hear with what agonizing anxiety awakened sinners inquired for Christ, as the only physician who could give them any help.  Those who call these things ‘enthusiasm’ ought to tell us what they understand by the Spirit of Christianity…Upon the whole, sir, I think the revival in Kentucky among the most extraordinary that have ever visited the Church of Christ, and all things considered, peculiarly adapted to the circumstances of that country… Something of an extraordinary nature seemed necessary to arrest the attention of a giddy people, who were ready to conclude that Christianity was a fable, and futurity, a dream.  This revival has done it; it has confounded infidelity, awed vice to silence, and brought numbers beyond calculation under serious impressions. (14)  God, by an outpouring of His Spirit, had changed Rogues Harbor into one of the most moral places in the country.  This is the gospel.  Describing the events of the summer, MacGready would write, “The present summer has been the most glorious time that our guilty eyes have ever beheld.  All the blessed displays of Almighty power and grace, all the sweet gales of divine Spirit and soul-reviving showers of the blessings of heaven which we enjoyed before, and which we considered wonderful beyond conception, were but like a few scattering drops before the mighty rain which Jehovah has poured out like a might river upon this, our guilty, unworthy country.  The Lord has indeed shoed himself a prayer-hearing God; He has given His People a praying sprit and a lively faith, and then he has answered their prayers far beyond their highest expectations,  This wilderness and solitary place has been made glad, this dreary desert now rejoices and blossoms abundantly, and rejoices even with joy and singing.”  (15)

This is the spiritual heritage that God has left for us to obtain.  The Spirit breathes prayer through
God’s People and He answers their prayers with miracles, signs, and wonders.  This is the Gospel of power and how genuine revival is hallmarked.  Let us join those who have gone on before us, joyfully expecting and praying for the mighty river to be again, poured out upon us.

Endnotes

1.  Marshall, Peter, Manual, David, From Sea to Shining Sea, Revell Cp, Old Tappan New Jersey, 1986, page 60.

2.  Anzac Prophetic List, The Red River Revival, associate.com/groups/anzac/0::17read.html – 16k

3.  Jarboe, Frank, The Red River Revival, http://www.goodshepherdfarm.us/1800/redtext.htm.

4.   Marshall, page 61.

5.  Ibid.

6.  Ibid, page 62.

7.  Ibid.

8.  Ibid.

9.  Ibid.

10.  Marshall and Manual, page 63.

11.  Grider, J.S.  The Red River Meeting House, http://www.cumberland.org/hfcpc/churches/RedRivKY.htm.

12.  Marshall, page 63.

13.  Grider, page 2.

14.  Marshall, page 69.

15.  Marshall, page 64.